Troodon (/"troh-uh-don"/; "wounding tooth") is a genus of small, bird-like theropod dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous period, about 77 to 76 million years ago. However, the validity of the genus is currently debated among paleontologists.


Description and Classification Troodon was a small, agile dinosaur that is estimated to have weighed around 50 kilograms (110 pounds) and reached lengths of up to 2.4 meters (7.9 feet). It had a relatively long neck, a large head with forward-facing eyes, and a slender body. As a member of the Troodontidae family, Troodon is closely related to other bird-like dinosaurs such as Stenonychosaurus, Saurornitholestes, and Zanabazar.

Distinguishing Features One of the most notable features of Troodon is its large, forward-facing eyes, which provided excellent binocular vision. Troodon also had a large brain relative to its body size, suggesting advanced cognitive abilities. Its dental arrangement, with a large number of small, closely packed teeth with distinctive serrations, indicates that Troodon was an active predator.

Paleoenvironment and Diet During the Late Cretaceous, the habitat of Troodon was characterized by forested environments with a warm, semi-arid climate. As a small, agile predator, Troodon likely preyed on a variety of small animals, including lizards, mammals, and possibly juvenile dinosaurs.

Significance and Ongoing Research The discovery of Troodon has contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds. However, the validity of the genus Troodon is currently debated. The original fossil material used to describe it, consisting of just a tooth, may not be diagnostic enough to distinguish it from other, similar theropods. Some paleontologists consider it a nomen dubium (doubtful name).

The type species Troodon formosus was found in the Judith River Formation in Montana. Several possible troodontid teeth and bones have been found in Alberta, Canada, but there is not enough evidence to confidently assign them to T. formosus.

While troodontids likely had feathers based on evidence from close relatives, direct evidence for feathering in Troodon itself is limited.

Ongoing research on Troodon and its relatives focuses on various aspects of their anatomy, behavior, and ecology. However, the uncertain taxonomic status of Troodon highlights the need for further fossil discoveries and analyses to clarify its validity and relationship to other troodontids.

As new fossil evidence emerges and analytical techniques advance, our understanding of Troodon and its place within the broader context of dinosaur evolution may change. The ongoing debate surrounding this genus underscores the dynamic nature of paleontological research and the importance of critically evaluating fossil evidence.

Back to blog